Pararotacism - a pronunciation defect involving the substitution of the "r" sound for other correctly pronounced soun...Read More
Preschool childrenDyslexia is difficult to diagnose in children of this age, who have very different levels of learning. Features in children in this age group include:
- Slow speech development.
- Difficulty in correct word order and a tendency to mix up letters. For example, a child may say "tevelision" instead of "television."
- Difficulty in correctly composing sentences to express oneself.
- Poor understanding of rhymes.
- Lack of interest in learning the letters of the alphabet.
School-age childrenSymptoms of dyslexia generally become easier to recognize in school-aged children. Some features of the condition in children between the ages of 5 and 12 include:
- Difficulty in understanding the meaning of the written word.
- Poor phonological awareness, which refers to a person's ability to understand how a word is made up of smaller sound units. This is essential for spelling and reading.
- Poor verbal memory. Verbal memory is the ability to recall information, such as a short list of items or a few instructions.
- Difficulty in learning sequences, such as letters of the alphabet or days of the week.
- Unpredictable and inconsistent spelling, with a tendency to misplace letters and numbers.
- Difficulty in reading aloud.
- Visual disturbances during reading. For example, a child may indicate seeing moving letters or blurring them.
- Children may be able to answer questions well orally, but have difficulty writing down what they said.
- Poor writing skills and difficulty dictating or even copying text.
- Lack of organizational skills and poor time management.
- Shy and introverted behavior due to fear of speaking or reading incorrectly. Children may also suffer from low self-esteem and be targeted by bullies.
Dyslexia in adultsUntreated dyslexia in adults can result in low self-esteem, anxiety, aggression, withdrawal from family, friends, and someday teachers. Symptoms of the disorder in adulthood can include:
- difficulties with reading (including reading aloud),
- trouble distinguishing left from right,
- problems with mathematical tasks,
- difficulty understanding jokes or idioms.