In terms of reading, symptoms of dyslexia can be:

  • difficulties dividing words into syllables, joining syllables into a word,
  • twisting words,
  • reading short words backwards,
  • skipping, adding words,
  • skipping or re-reading lines of text,
  • losing sight of where one is reading,
  • omitting punctuation,
  • incorrect intonation of the text being read,
  • slow, non-fluent, nonrhythmic reading,
  • low level of comprehension of the text read or listened to,
  • difficulty in finding the main ideas in a text,
  • problems remembering the information contained in the text read or listened to.

In the area of writing, dyslexia can be indicated by:

  • abnormal grip of writing instruments,
  • abnormal muscle tone in the hand, wrist,
  • slow writing speed,
  • too large, too small connections between letters, numbers,
  • lack of linking of letters with each other,
  • omission of diacritical marks (full stop, hook) above and below letters,
  • deformation of the shape of letters, figures,
  • illegible writing,
  • dropping, adding, rearranging (inversions) the order of letters in a word,
  • confusion, mirroring and reversal of similar-looking letters, figures,
  • writing words from right to left,
  • mirroring writing,
  • incorrect choice of letters for phonetically similar sounds,
  • writing according to pronunciation rather than spelling,
  • inappropriate use of lower and upper case letters,
  • adding, omitting, rearranging the order of words in a sentence,
  • leaving out word endings,
  • writing words in different ways in the same work,
  • missing or inappropriate use of punctuation,
  • incorrect positioning of text in space, problem with keeping margins.

In relation to drawing and doing other artwork, dyslexia may be indicated by:

  • rapid, high hand fatigue,
  • low precision of hand movements, fingers,
  • poor eye-hand coordination,
  • simplified, schematic drawings, omitting details,
  • distorted proportions of elements in the artwork,
  • inappropriate arrangement, disturbed composition of artistic works,
  • incorrect direction when drawing and reproducing figures, patterns.

In terms of motor skills, dyslexia may be indicated by:

  • delayed or atypical motor development,
  • low dexterity and co-ordination of fine and gross motor skills,
  • general clumsiness of movement,
  • difficulties with complex, sequential motor activities – e.g. gymnastics routines, dance steps (dyspraxia).

In relation to memory, symptoms of dyslexia can be:

  • difficulties in remembering rhymes, songs, names, dates, terminology, telephone numbers, addresses, numbers, multiplication tables,
  • difficulty in remembering longer, complex instructions,
  • difficulty recalling familiar words,
  • difficulty remembering new words,
  • losing the thread when writing essays.

In terms of speech and verbal communication, dyslexia can be indicated by:

  • delayed speech development,
  • confusion of similar sounding sounds, syllables, words,
  • twisting, changing the sound of difficult, long words,
  • problems with the correct pronunciation of newly learned words,
  • grammatical errors (agrammatisms),
  • limited active vocabulary,
  • difficulty in building longer, complex statements,
  • impaired understanding of speech in noise.


  1. M. Dąbrowska: Dysleksja w ujęciu psycholingwistycznym. Przegląd badań. Psychologia Wychowawcza Nr 4 1995 r.
  3. M. Bogdanowicz, A. Borkowska, Model rozpoznawania specyficznych trudności w czytaniu i pisaniu
  4. M.B. Pecyna (red.), Dysleksja rozwojowa. Fakt i tajemnica w diagnostyce psychologiczno-pedagogicznej