• difficulties in solving text tasks despite correct mathematical thinking (problems with reading comprehension),
  • incorrect transcription of e.g. bars, action signs (in the wrong places, which can affect the correctness of calculations),
  • lack of spatial imagination, difficulties in remembering shapes of figures and angles,
  • poor understanding of concepts (up-down, higher-lower),
  • changes of direction in drawings (e.g. in vectors),
  • unintentional changes in the order of digits in numbers,
  • confusion of inequality signs,
  • writing numbers from right to left,
  • learning problems with memory (multiplication tables, formulae).


  • difficulties with reading and drawing maps,
  • difficulties with spatial and temporal orientation (indicating directions on a map and in space; calculating time zones, geographical location, sun angle, etc.),
  • difficulty in remembering geographical names.


  • difficulty in drawing structural formulae,
  • problems with writing units (e.g. pH – PH),
  • incorrectly writing down chemical reaction chains.


  • difficulties with terminology (longer names, Latin names),
  • problems with spatial organisation of diagrams and drawings,
  • difficulty in writing down and remembering biochemical reaction chains,
  • difficulty in mastering systematics (hierarchical arrangement of information).

Foreign languages

  • particular problems in learning those languages with a significant discrepancy between pronunciation and spelling
  • problems with understanding speech from hearing, especially from cassettes or CDs played by a native speaker
  • problems with accent and intonation


  • problems in memorising dates, chronology of events,
  • difficulties in remembering names and surnames,
  • bad orientation in time (chronology, dates),
  • problems with understanding longer texts,
  • difficulty in understanding longer texts.

Technique, fine arts

  • difficulty in combining individual movements into a whole (e.g. cutting, moulding, drawing),
  • incorrect directions,
  • unintentional carelessness.

Physical education

  • inability to play games of skill,
  • mistakes when changing direction in a row and in a line (poor orientation in body scheme and space),
  • problems in coordination of movement with music,
  • problems in exercising with instruments (e.g. skipping rope, handrails).


  1. M. Dąbrowska: Dysleksja w ujęciu psycholingwistycznym. Przegląd badań. Psychologia Wychowawcza Nr 4 1995 r.
  3. M. Bogdanowicz, A. Borkowska, Model rozpoznawania specyficznych trudności w czytaniu i pisaniu
  4. M.B. Pecyna (red.), Dysleksja rozwojowa. Fakt i tajemnica w diagnostyce psychologiczno-pedagogicznej