Analysers – are the neurophysiological basis for receiving and processing stimuli into percepts. Each analyser is made up of:

  • the receptor, which receives stimuli (e.g. cones and rods in the retina) and converts them into bioelectrical impulses,
  • the afferent pathway, i.e. the nerve fibres that carry these impulses to the cerebral cortex,
  • the centre in the cerebral cortex, which represents the analyser. Reaching these centres results in the formation of sensations and perceptions, and thus makes it possible to perceive the world around us.

The three analysers are involved in reading and writing:

  • visual (perception of visual stimuli, such as texts, words and the letters that form them),
  • auditory (perception of speech sounds),
  • cutaneous-kinaesthetic (tactile-kinaesthetic sensations from moving speech organs when speaking and from a moving hand holding a pen when writing).

Each analyser must function well on its own, as well as working well with others.


  1. „Uczeń z dysleksją w szkole” M. Bogdanowicz, A. Adryjanek, Operon, Gdynia 2009